# Balancing Reactions and Stoichiometry (PS 1)

1. Balance the following reactions:
1. Fe2O3 + CO -> Fe3O4 + CO2
2. Fe3O4 + CO -> FeO + CO2
3. C12H22O11(s) + O2(g) -> CO2(g) + H2O
4. Fe(s) + O2(g) -> Fe2O3
5. Ca(s) + H2O(l) -> Ca(OH)2(aq) + H2(g)

2. Over the years, the thermite reaction has been used for welding railroad rails, in incendiary bombs, and to ignite solid-fuel rocket motors. The reaction is:Fe2O3(s) + 2Al(s) -> 2Fe(l) + Al2O3(s)What masses of iron(III) oxide and aluminum must be used to produce 15.0 g iron? What is the maximum mass of aluminum oxide that could be produced? How much aluminum oxide would be produced if the yield is 93%?

3. Elixirs such as Alka-Seltzer use the reaction of sodium bicarbonate with citric acid in aqueous solution to produce a fizz. Balance the following reaction. What mass of C6H8O7 should be used for every 1.0×102 mg of NaHCO3? What mass of CO2(g) could be produced by this mixture?

4. A confiscated white substance, suspected of being cocaine, was purified by a forensic chemist and subjected to elemental analysis. Combustion of a 50.86-mg sample yielded 150.0 mg CO2 and 46.05 mg H2O. Analysis for nitrogen showed that the compound contained 9.39% N by mass. The formula of cocaine is C17H21NO4. Can the forensic chemist conclude that the suspected compound is cocaine?

# Chemical Reactions Problem Set

1. For the following reactions: Name the reactants and products, Balance the equation, and calculate the molecular weight of the reactants and products. Starting with 2.0 grams of each reactant, identify the limiting reagent and determine the mass of the first product.
1. Fe2O3 (s ) + CO (g) -> FeO (s) + CO2 (g)
2. FeO (s) + CO (g) -> Fe (s) + CO2 (g)
3. C12H22O11 (s) + O2 (g) -> CO2 (g) + H2O (g)
4. Fe (s) + O2 (g) -> Fe2O3 (s)
5. Ca (s) + H2O (l) -> Ca(OH)2 (aq) + H2 (g)
2. Write a balanced equation for the following reactions.
1. Aluminum metal is oxidized by oxygen (from the air) to form aluminum oxide.
2. Sodium oxide reacts with carbon dioxide to form sodium carbonate.
3. Calcium metal reacts with water to form calcium hydroxide and hydrogen gas.
4. Potassium nitrate decomposes to form potassium nitrite and oxygen.
5. Barium metal reacts with Iron (III) sulfate to produce barium sulfate and iron metal.
6. Barium chloride reacts with sodium sulfate to produce barium sulfate and sodium chloride.
7. Bismuth (III) oxide and zinc metal react to produce zinc (II) oxide and bismuth metal.
8. Calcium metal reacts with phosphorus to produce calcium phosphide.
9. Copper metal reacts with sulfuric acid and water to produce copper sulfate pentahydrate and sulfur dioxide.
10. The combustion of decane.
11. The combustion of pamoic acid (C23H16O4).
12. A solution of hydrochloric acid reacts with a solid calcium bicarbonate to produce water, carbon dioxide, and calcium chloride.
13. A solution of acetic acid reacts with solid iron (II) hydroxide.
14. hydrofluoric acid reacts with sodium hydroxide.

# Chemical Nomenclature Problem Set

1. Technetium (Tc) was the first synthetically produced element. Technetium (the word comes from the Greek word for artificial) was first produced by Perries and Serge in 1937 in Berkely, California, by bombarding a molybedenum plate with 2H nuclei. Elemental technetium is produced from ammonium pertechnetate. How many protons, neutrons, and electrons are in the nuclei of 98Tc and 99Tc? What is the formula of ammonium pertechnenate?

2. How many protons, neutrons, and electrons are present in each of the following atoms or ions?
1. 24Mg
2. 24Mg2+
3. 59Co2+
4. 59Co3+
5. 59Co
6. 79Se
7. 79Se2-
8. 63Ni
9. 59Ni2+

3. The formulas and common names for several substances are given below. Give the systematic names for thses substances.
 Common Name Chemical Formula a. Sugar of lead Pb(C2H3O2)2 b. Blue vitrol CuSO4 c. Epsom salts MgSO4 d. Milk of magnesia Mg(OH)2 e. Gypsum CaSO4 f. Laughing gas N2O

4. Write the formula for each of the following compounds:
1. Sulfur difluoride
2. Sulfur hexafluoride
3. Sodium dihydrogen phosphate
4. Lithium nitride
5. Chromium (III) carbonate
6. Tin (II) fluoride
7. Ammonium acetate
8. Ammonium hydrogen sulfate
9. Cobalt (III) nitrate
10. Mercury (I) chloride
11. Potassium chlorate
12. Sodium hydride

5. Name each of the following compounds. Where appropriate give both common and systematic names.
1. NaCl
2. RbBr
3. CsF
4. AlI3
5. HI
6. NO
7. NF3
8. N2F4
9. N2Cl2
10. SiF4
11. H2Se
12. HNO3
13. HNO2
14. H3PO4
15. H3PO3
16. NaHSO4
17. Ca(HSO3)2
18. Ru(NO3)3
19. V2O5

# Limiting Reagent Problem Set

1. The Kingston Steam Plant burns 14,000 tons of coal each day and generates 1010 kilowatts-hours of electricity each year (enough for 700,000 homes). Coal is primarily carbon which undergoes combustion in the following reaction:

C(s) + O2 (g) -> CO2(g)

1. How many grams of oxygen is required for the combustion of 1 day’s coal?
2. How much carbon dioxide is produced each day?
2. CO2 is removed from the atomsphere by trees and converted into cellulose. The basic reaction for this is:

6 CO2 (g) + 5 H2O (l) -> C6H10O5 (s) + 6 O2 (g)

1. How many grams of water are required to process the CO2 from one day’s electrical production at the Kingston Steam Plant?
2. How much oxygen is produced by this process?
3. How much cellulose is produced?
4. If you assume that a tree weigh’s 2 tons, how many trees are required to process the CO2 produced in one day?
3. A typical automobile gets 30 miles per gallon of gas and drives 12,000 miles every year. Assuming that octane (C8H18, density 0.7025 g cm-3) is a principal component of gasoline;
1. How much oxygen is required for a car to run for 1 year?
2. How much CO2 is produced by the car in 1 year?
3. How many trees are required to remove the CO2 produced by the car in 1 year?
4. Modern instrumental techniques are capable of detecting lead in a milliliter sample at picomolar concentration.
1. How many moles of lead are in the sample?
2. What is the mass of lead in this sample?
3. How many grams of sodium chloride would be required to precipitate all the lead in this sample as lead (II) chloride?
4. What would the mass of the lead (II) chloride precipitate be?

# Chemical Reactions Problem Set

1. Titration/acid base problem. 0.4563 g of Mg(OH)2 is weighed out and disolved in 50.00 mL of H2O. This is titrated against a solution of HNO3. The initial volume of the burette is 2.35 ml. The final volume of the burette is 47.98 ml. What can you determine?
2. Acid Base equations and reactions. A base solution is made by disolving 4.987 g of Potassium Hydroxide in 500.0 ml of water. 36.84 ml of this base solution is used to titrate 25.00 ml of sulfuric acid. Write the total, total ionic, and net ionic equations for these reactions. What can you calculate from this information? What are your results?
3. When the following solutions are mixed, does a precipitate form? Write out the total, total ionic, and net ionic equations.
1. silver nitrate and rubidium chloride
2. lead nitrate and potassium chloride
3. mercury (I) nitrate and hydrochloric acid
4. calcium chloride and sodium carbonate
5. magnesium nitrate and calcium chloride
6. potassium sulfate and barium chloride
4. Precipitation Reactions and Solubility.
1. Step 1: 0.8765 g of silver (I) nitrate is placed in a 250 mL volumetric flask diluted to the mark with deionized water. Determine the concentration of each ion in solution.
2. Step 2: 1.8793 g of potassium chloride is placed in a 250 mL volumetric flask diluted to the mark with deionized water. Determine the concentration of each ion in solution.
3. Step 3: 50.0 mL of the silver (I) nitrate solution and 50.0 mL of the potassium chloride solution are mixed together in an erlenmyer flask. Determine the mass of any precipitate formed and the concentration of each ion in solution.

# Enthalpy and Thermochemistry Problem Set

In the video clip from George Gobel you saw that it is possible to light a charcoal grill in about a minute. If the grill is prepared using one 20 pound bag of charcoal (primarily carbon) and two 1 gallon buckets of liquid oxygen (the density of LOX (liquid oxygen) is 1142 kg/m3, CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics.)

1. Write a balanced chemical equation describing this reaction.
2. Determine the limiting reagent for this reaction.
3. Calculate the mass of each product and any remaining reactant.
4. Calculate the amount of heat released by this reaction.
5. If this heat is used to warm a 500 gallon tank of water at 15 C, what is the final temperature?
6. If this heat is used to warm 40 kg of ice at 200 K, what is the final temperature?

# Electronic Structure of Atoms Problem Set

1. Write the electron configuration ([Ne] 3s2, 3p4) and a table with the four quantum numbers (n, l, ml, ms) for the valence electrons in the following atoms:
1. N
2. O
3. P
4. F1-
5. K
6. Sc
7. Br
8. Br1-
2. Based upon the Bohr model of an atom, what would happen for atoms other than Hydrogen? Helium and Lithium for example?
3. Which element could have a ground state valence shell electron in the following orbital.
1. 3px
2. 2px, 2py, and 2pz
3. 3dz2
4. Make an energy level diagram that shows the electrons in the following: a) F b) F1- c) N d) N3- e) Si
5. Use electron configuration to explain the following trends in the periodic table. Use data from tables in your book to produce a graph that shows these trends.
3. Ionization Energy
4. Electron Affinity

# Molecular Structure Problem Set #1

Draw Lewis structures and determine the electron structure for the following compounds. Select one to draw with the computer.

1. O
2. O2-
3. I2
4. H3O1+
5. NH41+
6. C2H6
7. C2H4
8. C2H2
9. HCl
10. HCN
11. CH2Cl2
12. HNO2
13. SO2 (resonance)
14. C2H4O2
15. CH3CO2ONO2

# Molecular Structure Problem Set #2

Determine bond angles, molecular structure, formal charge, bond energies, hybridization and draw an orbital diagram for the following.

1. O
2. O2-
3. I2
4. H3O1+
5. NH41+
6. SF6
7. C2H6
8. C2H4
9. C2H2
10. HCl
11. HCN
12. CH2Cl2
13. HNO2
14. SO2 (resonance)
15. C2H4O2
16. CH3CO2ONO2

# Colligative Properties Problem Set

 Compound Formula Density (20 °C, g cm-3) FP (°C) BP (°C) Kf (°C m-1) Kb (°C m-1) Vap P (25 °C, Pa) Acetic Acid CH3COOH 1.0492 16.6 117.9 3.90 3.07 2.11*103 Benzene C6H6 0.8765 5.5 80.1 4.90 2.53 1.261*104 Carbon Tetrachloride CCl4 1.5940 -22.99 76.54 2.98 5.03 1.541*104 Nitrobenzene C6H5NO2 1.2037 5.7 210.8 7.00 5.24 55.1 Water H2O 0.998203 0.000 100.0 1.86 0.512 3.467*103 Ethanol C2H6O 0.7893 -117.3 78.5 1.22 7900

1. For a mixture prepared by combining 200.0 mL of nitrobenzene and 1.00 L of water.
1. Calculate the mole fraction of each compound in the mixture
2. Calculate the vapor pressure of each compound in the mixture
3. Calculate the total vapor pressure of the mixture
2. For a mixture prepared by mixing 5.00 g of caffeine (C8H10N4O2) with 250.0 mL of water. The final density of this mixture is 1.05 g mL-1.
1. Calculate the boiling point of this mixture
2. Calculate the vapor pressure of this mixture
3. Calculate the freezing point of this mixture
4. Calculate the osmotic pressure of this mixture at 25 °C.
3. For a mixture prepared by mixing 10.0 g of sodium sulfate in 250 mL of water. The final density of this mixture is 1.10 g mL-1.
1. Calculate the boiling point of this mixture
2. Calculate the vapor pressure of this mixture
3. Calculate the freezing point of this mixture
4. Calculate the osmotic pressure of this mixture
4. You are examining forensics data for a court case and need to identify an anelgesic (pain killer). It could be either acetylsalicylic acid (asprin), ibuprofen (advil) or acetaminophen (tylenol). A mixture of the unknown is prepared by mixing 10.0 grams of unknown and diluting to 250 mL with ethanol. The density of this solution is 0.80 g mL-1. Identify the unknown based upon the following:
1. The boiling point of this mixture is 78.8 °C.
2. The osmotic pressure of this mixture is 480400 Pa at 25 °C.

# Kinetics Problem Set

This problem set was developed by

Data from Zumdahl, Chemistry,

Reaction Rates and Rate laws for the following reaction:

NO(g) + O3 (g) -> NO2(g) + O2(g)Given the following data:

[O3] = 1.0*1014molecules cm-3

Time [NO]
0 ms 6.0*108
100 5.0*108
500 2.4*108
700 1.7*108
1000 9.9*107

[NO] = 2.0*1014 molecules cm-3

Time [O3]
0 1.0*1010
50 8.4*109
100 7.0*109
200 4.9*109
300 3.4*109
1. Using the data above:
1. Graph each data set.  2. Graph ln[] vs time.  3. Determine the average rate for the reaction, between each data point.
4. Use your graph to determine the instentaneous reaction rate at 250 ms.
5. Given that the reaction is first order in NO and in O3, determine the rate constant using your calculated rate for each set of data points
6. Use the ln[] vs time graph to determine the rate constant.
7. What is the overall rate law?
8. Convert the units of the rate constant to moles, liters, and seconds.
2. Given the following kinetics data for the above reaction:
 T (K) k(L mole-1 sec-1) 195 1.08 * 109 230 2.95 * 109 260 5.42 * 109 298 12.0 * 109 369 35.5 * 109
1. Graph this data as ln(k) vs 1/T. 2. Determine the activation energy and the preexponential factor from the graph.
3. What is the rate constant at 150 K?
3. Catalysis, Temperature, and the Arrhenius equation
For the above reaction mechanism with several additional steps as shown below:

Step 1: NO + O3 -> NO2 + O2

Step 2: NO2 + O -> NO + O2

Overall: O3 + O -> 2 O2

1. Which species is a catalyst?
2. Which species is an intermediate?
3. How does this catalyst effect the rate of the reaction shown below. Ea = 11.9 kJ for the catalyzed reaction and Ea = 14.0 kJ for the uncatalyzed reaction. Calculate the change in the reaction rate at 200, 250, and 300 K

O3 + O -> 2 O2

4. Draw an energy level diagram for this reaction, with and without catalysis.
5. For the catalytic destruction of O3 by Cl Ea = 2.1 kJ, Compare the reaction rate for the uncatalyzed reaction and the Cl catalyzed reaction at 250 K.

# Kinetics and Equlibrium Problem Set

This problem set was developed by

.

Given the reaction: R <–> 2 P

• The forward reaction has
• Ea = 2 kJ/mole
• A = 0.01 s-1
• The reverse reaction has
• Ea = 4 kJ/mole
• A = 0.01 L mole-1 s-1
1. Calculate the rate constant for the forward and reverse reactions at 298 K.
2. Calculate the rate of the forward and reverse reactions at 298 K and predict the direction of the net reaction when
1. [R] = 0.1 M, [P] = 0.0 M
2. [R] = 0.1 M, [P] = 0.1 M
3. [R] = 0.1 M, [P] = 0.5 M
4. [R] = 0.0 M, [P] = 0.1 M
5. [R] = 0.2 M, [P] = 0.2 M
3. Write an expression for
1. the equlibrium constant for this reaction.
2. the rate of the forward reaction.
3. the rate of the reverse reaction
4. At equlibrium, the rate of the forward and reverse reactions are equal. Combine the above expressions as appropriate and solve for the equlibrium constant K.
5. Based upon the value for K at 298 K, calculate the equlibrium concentration of P when [R]=0.1 M. Calculate the rate of the forward and reverse reactions and predict the direction of the net reaction at these concentrations.

# Equlibrium Calculations Problem Set

This problem set was developed by

The equlibrium for the following chemical reaction is very temperature dependent.

2 NO2 <–> N2O4

1. Write the equlibrium expression for this reaction.
2. Calculate the equlibrium constant given the equlibrium conditions at 320 K where:
1. PNO2 = 0.10 atm
2. PN2O4 = 0.018 atm
3. Given the following initial conditions, predict the direction of the reaction.
 NO2 (atm) N2O4 (atm) 0.10 0.10 0.010 0.010 1.0 2.0 2.0 7.0 0.01 1.8*10-4 0.5 0.5
4. Given the initial, non-equlibrium, conditions. Calculate the equlibrium pressure of NO2 and N2O4.
1. PNO2 = 0.20 atm; PN2O4 = 0.00 atm
2. PNO2 = 0.00 atm; PN2O4 = 0.20 atm
3. PNO2 = 0.20 atm; PN2O4 = 0.20 atm

# Acid Base Equlibrium Problem Set I

1. For a 0.1 M solution of HCl calculate the equlibrium concentration of
1. H3O1+
2. Cl1-
3. OH1-
2. For a 0.1 M solution of KOH calculate the equlibrium concentration of
1. K1+
2. H3O1+
3. OH1-
3. For a 0.1 M solution of acetic acid (Ka = 1.8*10-5) calculate the equlibrium concentration of
1. CH3COOH
2. CH3COO1-
3. H3O1+
4. OH1-
4. For a 0.1 M solution of Ammonia (Kb = 1.78*10-5) calculate the equlibrium concentration of
1. NH3
2. NH41+
3. H3O1+
4. OH1-

# Acid Base Problem Set II

This problem set was developed by

1. Several years ago, two garbage workers in New York City were exposed to hydrofluoric acid. This acid is usually sold in 500.0 milliliter Teflon bottles (It can not be stored in glass because it will dissolve the bottle!). It has a boiling point of 19.54 °C and a density of 0.991 g cm-3. Hydrofluoric acid causes extremely severe chemical burns and is capable of dissolving bone. Hydrofluoric Acid Safety Video is available from filemedia. The Material Safety Data Sheet for HF is available from J.T.Baker.
1. Write a balanced chemical equation that describes what happens when hydrofluoric acid is added to water.
2. Write the equilibrium expression for this balanced chemical equation
3. If the entire contents of this bottle is mixed into a 55 gallon barrel of water. What is the equlibrium concentration of HF, H3O1+, F1-, and OH1-? Clearly show your work and identify any assumptions that you make.
2. A solution is prepared by diluting 2.50 g of potassium fluoride to 250.0 mL with deionized water. Calculate the concentration of all the ions present in this solution at equlibrium. Clearly identify any assumptions that you make while solving this problem.
3. A solution is prepared by diluting 2.50 g of potassium chloride to 250.0 mL with deionized water. Calculate the concentration of all the ions present in this solution at equlibrium. Clearly identify any assumptions that you make while solving this problem.
4. A solution is prepared by adding 2.50 g of hydrochloric acid to 250.0 mL with deionized water. Calculate the concentration of all the ions present in this solution at equlibrium. Clearly identify any assumptions that you make while solving this problem.

# Strong Acid/Strong Base Titration Problem Set

This problem set was developed by

The following is an acid-base equlibrium problem that involves many of the topics we have discussed in chapters 17 and 18. For each of the following solutions:

1. Titration Video (© Saunders 1997).
2. A sodium hydroxide solution of unknown concentration is titrated against 0.8765 g KHPh (Potassium acid phalate, a monoprotic acid, MW 204.3 g/mol). 48.6 mL of the sodium hydroxide solution is required to reach the endpoint of the titration. What is the concentration of the unknown sodium hydroxide solution.
3. This sodium hydroxide solution is then used to titrate an unknown nitric acid sample. 25.0 mL of the nitric acid solution is titrated. 32.8 mL of the sodium hydroxide solution is required to reach the endpoint. What is the concentration of the nitric acid solution?
4. Calculate the pH at the following points in the titration of the unknown nitric acid sample.
1. 0 mL of sodium hydroxide solution added.
2. 1 mL of sodium hydroxide solution added.
3. 5 mL of sodium hydroxide solution added.
4. 10 mL of sodium hydroxide solution added.
5. 20 mL of sodium hydroxide solution added.
6. 30 mL of sodium hydroxide solution added.
7. 32.8 mL of sodium hydroxide solution added.
8. 35 mL of sodium hydroxide solution added.
9. 40 mL of sodium hydroxide solution added.
10. 50 mL of sodium hydroxide solution added.

# Acid-Base Buffers and Titrations Problem Set

This problem set was developed by

The following is an acid-base equlibrium problem that involves many of the topics we have discussed in chapters 17 and 18. For each of the following solutions:

1. Describe (in words) what happens.
2. Write a chemical equation that describes what happens.
3. What is the proton donor? Why?
4. What is the proton acceptor? Why
5. After this solution has reached equlibrium: What species are present? What is their concentration? What is the pH and pOH?
1. Benzoic Acid (C6H5COOH) is a solid. 15.000 grams is dissolved in distilled water and diluted to 200.00 mL.
2. Sodium benzoate (NaC6H5COO) is a solid. Used as a preservative in most pop (or back east you call it soda). 10.000 grams is dissolved in distilled water and diluted to 100.00 mL.
3. Sodium Hydroxide is a solid. 5.0000 grams is dissolved in 50.0 mL of distilled water.
4. The benzoic acid solution and the sodium benzoate solution are mixed together in a large flask.
5. 1.00 mL of the sodium hydroxide solution is added to the buffer.
6. 10.00 mL of the sodium hydroxide solution is added to the buffer.
7. 25.00 mL of the sodium hydroxide solution is added to the buffer.

# Ksp Problem Set

This problem set was developed by

1. Calculate the molar solubility and Ksp for each of the following.
1. 6.11*10-4 g BaSO4 dissolves in 250.0 mL of water at 25 °C
2. 0.3295 g BaF2 dissolves in 250.0 mL of water at 25 °C
3. 4.807*10-4 g AgCl dissolves in 250.0 mL of water at 25 °C
4. 1.667 g CaF2 dissolves in 100.0 L of water at 25 °C
2. Use the Ksp values calculated above to determine the mass of each that will dissolve in 2.0 L of deionized water.
1. BaSO4
2. BaF2
3. AgCl
4. CaF2
3. Use the Ksp values calculated above to determine.
1. The mass of BaSO4 that will dissolve in 500 mL of 0.10 M sodium sulfate.
2. The mass of BaF2 that will dissolve in 250 mL of 0.10 M potassium fluoride.
3. The mass of AgCl that will dissolve in 5.0 L of 10-4 M lithium chloride.
4. The mass of CaF2 that will dissolve in 5000.0 L of 0.10 M potassium fluoride.
4. Use the Ksp values calculated in the previious problem set to determine the mass of precipitate formed and the concentration all ions remaining in soultion when:
1. 50.0 mL of 0.10 M barium acetate is mixed with 100.0 mL of 0.10 M sodium sulfate.
2. 100.0 mL of 0.15 M barium chlorate is mixed with 250.0 mL of 0.10 M potassium fluoride.
3. 75.0 mL of 0.015 M silver nitrate is mixed with 1.0 L of 10-4 M lithium chloride.
4. 100 L of 0.50 M calcium chloride is mixed with 5000.0 L of 0.10 M potassium fluoride.

# Ksp Problem Set #2

This problem set was developed by

1. Use the Ksp values calculated in the previious problem set to determine.
1. The mass of BaSO4 that will dissolve in 500 mL of 0.10 M sodium sulfate.
2. The mass of BaF2 that will dissolve in 250 mL of 0.10 M potassium fluoride.
3. The mass of AgCl that will dissolve in 5.0 L of 10-4 M lithium chloride.
4. The mass of CaF2 that will dissolve in 5000.0 L of 0.10 M potassium fluoride.
2. Use the Ksp values calculated in the previious problem set to determine the mass of precipitate formed and the concentration all ions remaining in soultion when:
1. 50.0 mL of 0.10 M barium acetate is mixed with 100.0 mL of 0.10 M sodium sulfate.
2. 100.0 mL of 0.15 M barium chlorate is mixed with 250.0 mL of 0.10 M potassium fluoride.
3. 75.0 mL of 0.015 M silver nitrate is mixed with 1.0 L of 10-4 M lithium chloride.
4. 100 L of 0.50 M calcium chloride is mixed with 5000.0 L of 0.10 M potassium fluoride.

# Balancing Redox Reactions Problem Set

This problem set was developed by

1. Assign oxidation numbers to each element in the reactants and in the products. Identify what is being oxidized and what is being reduced. Balance the following redox reactions using both the half reaction and the oxidation number methods.
1. In an acidic solution, potassium dichromate reacts with ethyl alcohol to produce aqueous chromium (III) ions, carbon dioxide and water.
2. In a basic solution solid silver reacts with aqueous cyanide and oxygen gas to produce silver (I) cyanide.
3. Solid aluminum reacts with solid iodine to produce solid aluminum iodide.
4. Solid zinc metal reacts with aqueous hydrochloric acid to produce aqueous zinc (II) ions and hydrogen gas.
5. Aqueous arsenous acid reacts with solid zinc metal to produce gaseous arsenic (III) hydride and aqueous zinc (II) ions.
6. Iron (III) oxide reacts with oxalic acid to produce aqueous iron (III) trioxalate ions.
7. Aqueous silver nitrate reacts with solid copper metal to produce solid silver and aqueous copper nitrate.

# Electrochemistry Problem Set

This problem set was developed by

1. Calculate the cell potential and free energy available for the following electrochemical systems.
1. Ag(s)|Ag1+(aq 1.0 M)||Cu2+ (aq 1.0 M)|Cu(s)
2. Ag(s)|Ag1+(aq 0.1 M)||Cu2+ (aq 0.1 M)|Cu(s)
3. Ag(s)|Ag1+(aq 1.0 M)||Cu2+ (aq 0.1 M)|Cu(s)
4. Ag(s)|Ag1+(aq 1.0 M)||Cu2+ (aq 0.01M)|Cu(s)
5. Ag(s)|Ag1+(aq 0.1 M)||Cu2+ (aq 1.0 M)|Cu(s)
6. Cu(s|Cu2+ (aq 1.0 M)||Ag1+(aq 1.0 M)|Ag(s))
2. If the electrochemical cell discussed is used as a battery and begins with 10.0 g electrodes (silver and copper), and 250 mL of each 1.0 M solution.
1. Identify the limiting reagent in the reaction.
2. Calculate the number of moles of electrons exchanged when the reaction goes to completion.
3. Batteries are frequently made using solid electrodes. What advantage might this provide?
4. Tin cans are very common. Answer the following questions based upon the diagram of the electrochemical cell shown below:
1. What is missing in the cell as it is drawn here? What effect does this have on the rusting of a tin can?
2. After the cell is complete, what is Eocell. Which side of the can is the anode, and which is the cathode.
3. Write out all the relevant half reactions for this system.
4. In real life, the concentrations are not likely to be the same as under standard conditions. If it is a hot summer day (98 °F), and the [Fe2+] in contact with the cell is 1.35*10-5 M, and the [Sn2+] is 8.41*10-3 M, what is the cell potential.
5. On space craft, a H2, O2 fuel cell is used to produce electricity.
1. The reactions
1. What is the reaction at the anode?
2. What is the reaction at the cathode?
3. What is the balanced redox reaction?
4. What is Ecell assuming Po2 = 2*atm, and PH2 = 2*atm.
2. If two cylinders of H2 and 1 cylinder of O2 (cylinder: volume=200 liter, pressure = 3000 psi) are used.
1. How many moles of electons can be produced?
2. How much energy (joules) is this?
3. If this energy has to last for 1 week, what is the average power (watts) available?
3. Compare the amount of energy produced by this fuel cell to the energy produced by the combustion of the same amount of H2 and O2 using Hrxn.
4. The following relationships may be useful:
1. V = kg m2 s-3 A
2. A = C s-1
3. J = kg m2 s-2
4. W = J s-1
5. Electrochemical Analysis techniques are capable of detecting very small amounts of certain metals. In one type of analysis Cd2+ undergoes electrolysis. In this experiment it is possible to detect a signal from 1 pA of current, lasting only 1 ms.
1. How many moles of Cd2+ does this correspond to?
2. How many atoms is this?

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